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Worldwide Events of Radio

Two years after the invention of the telephone, on March 12, 1878, Thomas Edison presents in Paris the first "talking machine", which is none other than the phonograph. From a small funnel could n 'anyone heard the sounds of a military march, which Edison had written especially for first listeners of his invention. The phonograph was the first human voice playback machine.

September 26, 1887: Before you complete ten years since the miraculous invention of Edison, a new machine, the gramophone, about to emerge. Inventor of the German-born American Emile Berliner, who a few years later, he built more advanced platters of wax. Phonograph and Gramophone delight and entertain listeners amazed, closely though, as it has not yet found the way to be transported off sound, voice, melody, for mass hearing.

The Guglielmo Marconi is the first that succeeds, in 1895, by introducing the theoretical possibilities of the radio broadcast. For Marconi, the most appropriate in terms of profit and business development, market was communication concerning navigation. In addition, the financial standing, offered him the opportunity to "endure" the first difficult days, when the market was minimal. In practice, wireless communication was considered rather be a means of communication of the Armed Forces, but a mode of transmission infotainment programs. Slowly - slowly, but the public and the industry began to realize the considerable potential offered by the new medium.

The first transmission of music and speech took place on Christmas Eve 1906 by the pioneer of the American radio, the Reginald Aubrey Fessenden, an American physicist and electrical engineer who was born in Canada. Transmission begins on Christmas Eve by the radio station company National Electrical Signaling in Bryant Rock of Massachousepis. The program included a performance by violin «Holy Night» of Gounod, and fragments of the Gospel of St. Luke with a greeting for the feast of Christmas that he read himself Fessenden. The wireless transmission reaches up ships at more than 100 miles away.

In 1908 the Daily Express Dublin commissioned Marconi to contribute to the use of new technology to the realization of reportage for regattas of Kingstown. A receiver earthly installed in the garden of the port authority of Kingstown and a ship equipped with a transmitter watched developments on races. The news broadcast by alphabet Morse, from the ship to the receiver and from there by telephone at the offices of the Daily Express. The same evening, the readers of the newspaper knew developments on races in Kingstown which was a real achievement. The Lee de Forest, another American researcher, helped considerably in the development of modern forms of radio. In 1907 launched the electronic vacuum tube that made possible the development of modern electronic communication. The lamp of the Forest was later replaced by the transistor. The Forest became one of the fathers of modern radio by broadcasting an entire operetta from the Metropolitan Opera House in 1910 which starred the famous since Enrico Caruso.

In 1910 the "underground radio amateurs" disrupt America, managing two years later, in 1912, voted the Radio Regulations, which provided for the procedure for granting radio licenses.

1916: William Marconi began the first experimental radio broadcasts, constructing the first pilot VHF radio receivers.

1916: David Sarnof envisions radio as a "residential facility" and submits the famous memo entitled «Radio Music Vox" those in charge of Marconi.

1917: Broadcaster AM: Configuring a frequency carrier using speech signal.

In 1919 begin to take place the first regular emissions, not only in the US but also in Europe.

On November 2, 1920 begins to work in Pittsburgh's first commercial radio station called coca construction WESTINGHOUSE. The broadcast begins at 8:00 pm until 9:30 pm with reports on the results of the presidential elections in the Harding-Cox. Through the coca, the American Society of Radio Research and relayed concerts, two to three times a week. Through the first commercial radio station coca, the RCA establishes an international messaging service with France, Germany and Argentina. During the 20s the wealthy began receiving the first radio broadcasts in their own radios using crystals. In twenty years, before 20 World War, the growing public interest in the development of broadcasting and the increasing importance of radio networks for government agencies, the armed forces and navigation services, gave a strong impetus to the development of electronics. The technology of vacuum tubes and the theory of circuits has continued to progress. The electronics are extended to other fields of application. The techniques of radio and telephony show increasingly visible links and exchange of information about what is discovered in these areas is becoming increasingly common.

1921: Within a year after the first commercial broadcast in the US, transmitted the first sporting events via radio, including tennis, boxing and baseball. These competitions, together with music programs, accelerate the popularity of radio entertainment so that by the end of 1921, founded and operate eight radio stations in the United States. On December 28, 1921 are shown for the first time on the market electric loudspeakers that enhance the intensity of the reconstructed audio. Sport wins and radio or the opposite? As in any case, in 1921 broadcast live in America match between two legends of boxing, Jack Ntemsei and George Karpantie. This matches the listen 300,000 atoma.1922: passed from Pittsburgh radio whole football match. At that time it is estimated that there were 100,000 radios in the US.

1924: It is estimated that used over 3 million radios in the United States. On December 4, 1924 in Berlin opens the first radio station with the slogan "Radio for all!". They operate almost simultaneously radio stations in Leipzig, Munich, Hamburg, Stuttgart and some others. By the end of the 20s to listen to the radio you need headset. The funnel of Gecophone built in 1925 was the first widely available radio device that amplifies the sound enough to not need headphones. This allowed many people to listen to the radio together. Radios that time costing a fortune and the interest of broadcasting was very large. Thus, a simple radio listening could easily be transformed into a massive social event.

In 1925 he founded in Bern the International Broadcasting Union, which next year issued the first list of distribution of waves in different states - members of the Union.

In 1926, radio listeners in Britain reach the two million. At that time in Greece is estimated to operate 200 radios that the absence of Greek radio station, watching strangers.

1928: Frequency Modulation (FM) - Best quality audio for transmission. 30s people in many countries of the world heard new adaptations of novels and plays from thousands of miles away. The radio had become the first mass broadcast medium.

In 1938 the actor Orson Welles broadcasted a radio station an American adaptation of the novel of x. Tz. Wells' The War of the Worlds "on the invasion of Martians on Earth. He was so successful that radioskinothesia, many listeners thought that was real news. Some of them even went so far as to create makeshift shelters and armed to defend themselves from the "invaders."
In 1940 the radio has been developed around the world.

In 1947 the Americans John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley invent the transistor. 1948: The Bell announced the invention. The invention of the transistor in the 50s had a huge impact on the electronics industry and their production costs, as allowed to build smaller and cheaper radios. With respect to broadcasting, the elements (transistors) replaced the lamp technology and undoubtedly formed the biggest cause to improve the technical equipment used for processing either in the studio or reportage in sports grounds.

In 1950 he founded the "European Broadcasting Union", which undertakes to protect the rights of the various national agreements around the operational aspects of broadcasting. The spread of radio (indicative figures from various countries of the world) at the end of 1951, the eve of the Winter Olympics in Oslo, is as follows:

& nbsp; Country Radios Radios / 1,000 persons
1 United States 91.460.000 624
2 UK 11.800.000 231
3 Germany 11.025.000 170
4 Soviet Union 11.000.000 57
5 Japan 9.000.000 108
6 France 6.890.000 170
7 Italy 3.154.000 68
8 Brazil 2.500.000 109
9 Czechoslovakia 2.413.000 192
10 Sweden 2.172.000 308
11 Canada 2.146.000 162
12 Australia 2.064.000 247
13 Holland 1.995.000 193
14 Belgium 1.549.000 182
15 Argentina 1.500.000 92
16 Poland 1.464.000 61
17 Austria 1.320.000 188
18 Denmark 1.235.000 305
19 Mexico 1.220.000 51
20 Switzerland 1.057.000 221
21 Norway 787 . 000 240
22 Finland 737 . 000 183
23 Hungary 606 . 000 67
24 Spain 604 . 000 108
25 South Africa 556 . 000 49
26 India 518 . 000 14
27 Chile 500 . 000 97
28 New Zealand 461 . 000 239
29 Yugoslavia 333 . 000 22
30 Israel 310 . 000 101
31 Turkey 333 . 000 101
32 Romania 270 . 000 14
33 Portugal 233 . 000 10
34 Greece 220 . 000 27
35 Bulgaria 210 . 000 26
36 Algeria 202.000 29
37 Egypt 183.000 23
38 Morocco 133.000 9

October 20 1958: Manufacture of the first stereo records.

In 1960 there are 350 million radio receivers all over the world.

In 1970 the radio receivers reach 750 million.

The technology of integrated circuits has continued consistently lowers the volume, weight and energy consumption of a wide range of equipment, while at the same time, lead to a significant increase in stability and reliability.

In 1980 there are more than one billion radio receivers all over the world. The headlong invasion of television with the advantage of direct transmission of image and sound from any part of the world, ousted the radio from the top of the media, but the forced better organize and hold its own loyal audience. There are times when one can not be viewer, for example while working or when driving a car. But can this time to enjoy, at low volume, a pleasant music program or listening to the news on the radio.


Radio in Greece

Sporadic reports of radio and its applications, there are several in the Greek press at the close of the century. One of the most interesting articles published in the newspaper "Palingenesis" on June 26, 1899: "... announced that shortly the phone as the telegraph will operate without wire. A simple spike sun crosses the space will serve as a conductor of electricity and would join Tash rather memakrysmenas distances. The inventor of the telephone without wire is American, the Hayes, called whoever did successful experiments at New Gorkin. Reference is also very Interesting execution details of the operation result of the new machine, which was named radio. It is certain that this new invention will rapidly come to a general krisin and application. " The public will begin to be informed somewhat specific and scientific explanations very early. A report from the "Estia" of 26 January 1900. "It will be wondrous indeed today dialexis in the" Parnassus "as the distinguished professor. Tim. Argyropoulos, not the nicest of all osas hitherto did. The mean otherwise either from the subject. Will speak on the largest discoveries Tash whose eklirodotisen to humanity the late nineteenth century (...). All these indicate that it is a colossal endeavor to seek to summarize Olas almost Tash fundamental first electricity, to reach to the top of discoveries, in the non-wire telegraph. You therefore ye shall see the apparatus of the famous Marconi. At one end of the hall set up puffs, a shaft Roumkof. And at the other end of the aktinagogon rantiokontoukter the apparatus Branly ... ". For a quarter century the word radio will be forgotten, but the new feature of wireless communication will gradually begin to care more and more Greeks.

The interest in radio in Greece rekindled in 1923 with initiatives headquarters physics at the University of Athens curator K. Petropoulos, who created a core radio amateurs who dealt with purely radio equipment a time in Greece very few were aware of the radio. In the same year the first experimental radio show in Greece from the Botanical Station, where it was used wireless telephone transmitter power of 200 watt AKTIEBOLAGET company.

In 1924 successfully made the first appearance of the radio in the theater "Alhambra", where the comedy was played "Through the radio," Vassilis Argyropoulos.

The manufacture of radio receivers for trading began in 1925. The same year was sold by the laboratories "Metron" (pl. Of America) the first radio seven lights framed, operated with batteries. Many are quick to do the same despite the difficult and complex use. The introduction of radio in Greece began in 1925 also by S.. Stylianidis («Radio LL") and the house of Zacharias («Arcolette / Siemens - Telefunken» and S.. Fontana - Avgerinos «Super Radiola»).

The traffic and interest in the radio and multiplied in 1927, the establishment of the "Group of Friends of Wireless" chaired by Professor Dimitrios Kraft, opened new horizons in the field of broadcasting.

In 1928 it was founded by the owners Christos Tsingiridi the first radio station in Greece and the Balkans, and the only one that systematically operated until 1936.

The pioneer of the Greek Radio Tsingiridis Christos, was born in 1877 in Plovdiv, Eastern Rumelia. After finishing high school he left France in Stuttgart, Germany, where he studied electrical engineering at the university there. His dream, however, was the radio. So he founded in Thessaloniki in 1928 the first radio station of Greece and the Balkans. During the occupation he was imprisoned by the Germans. After the liberation, he managed many labors to restore operating station. The Tsingiridis died in 1947. At the initiative of the newspaper Makedonia Thessaloniki, he has erected a statue.

From 1932 until 1935 are at times few radio shows in the area of ​​Athens by the radio station Piraeus power 200 Watt, medium wave, which belonged to Radiotilegrafiki Service of the Ministry of TTT In July 1936, on Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas invitation to international tender which was enshrined in the company Telefunken.

On January 25, 1938 signed the final agreement between Telefunken and the Greek State for the installation of radio station. The Telefunken installed the transmitter of the first State Radio Athens, Power 15 kW, which operated in Nea Liosia (Ilion today). The exploitative use of radio took the "Service Radio Broadcasting - Y.R.E.".

pompos 1 pompos 2

Visit at the transmitter shortly before closing.

pompos 3 pompos 4

pompos 5

With the ERT technical Mr. Gkoutroumichos Christos.

pompos 6

Here we can see the control of the transmitter.

The transmitter of Radio Station of Athens was inaugurated on March 25, 1938 by King George II. During the Greek-Italian war and the German attack, the transmitter of Athens played a big role in psychosis and updating the struggling nation. And many, called radio ... 'vradyofono "because it sounded the evening. They spend even a few months, until Saturday of May 21, 1938 at 7 pm, which sounded the first signal: "Forward, forward. Here Athens Radio Station! "From the transmitter of Liosia (current Municipality of Ilion). The radio studios Station operated at Zappeion and programs broadcast via underground cable.
The radio buyer was obliged within ten days of purchase to inform their National Broadcasting Institution. Assistance in 1945 per quarter was 1000 drachmas and a year later became 9000. In 1947 was 15,000 drachmas and by 1950 reached 30,000 drachmas. Today, our assistance for national radio and television networks to pay via PPC account.

1939 - 1941: Published the "Weekly Schedule Radio Station of Athens" by the Ministry of Press. The first attempt to broadcast radio shortwave happened immediately after the outbreak of the Greek-Italian war in October 1940. From small transmitter in the center of Athens, was transmitted to the front and the Balkan countries emissions Radio Athens.

On April 27, 1941 and while German troops occupied the capital of Greece, the Athens radio station transmitted the last bulletin: "From moment to moment the Greek Radio Station will cease to be Greek." At 42 months and until the liberation (October 13, 1944) the Athens radio station operated under the occupation of the Germans.

On October 14, 1943 published an order of the German occupation authorities for the sealing of the radio so that listeners can only catch Station Athens operated under the control of the occupying forces. It is estimated that during the period of occupation sealed about 43,000 radios.

sfragismeno sfragida 1 sfragida 2

Here is the cord and the seal, so it is not possible to select station beyond Athens station.

Although the German order was explicit, the Greeks with proper fit radio had access to the station in London. This is achieved by turning the switch to short wave.
I quote from the magazine broadcasting television in April 1945 described in any way radio holders heard the news from London of the sealed but identified Radios:
The time heard of the London station, either hidden or sealed but "tachtopoiimeno" as it was called, radio, were all the houses the most important of the day. The latch should enter the front door, all the doors and windows shut tightly and all the family members gather in the room that was on the radio and solemn silence to hear chimes "titititaaaa ... titititaaaa ..." who felt a thrill like beats of their own heart, and then the speaker's voice: "Here London. Good evening. We Transmitted ... ". In some houses all family members, along with the radio, entered under a blanket to drowning the voice as much as possible, not our friend recounted his surprise when one evening, entering the living room of a house without warning, saw five to six heads under a blanket to stir uneasily and then highlight a - a ghastly forms and expression of horror painted on their face.

October 20, 1944: In their retirement, the Germans blow up the antennas of the radio station in Nea Liosia. The transmitter saves the complete destruction, but the radio station will be silenced for a few days.

keraia prin keraia meta
On the left we can see the antenna as it was after blown by the Germans and right we see a spectacular night view of the decoration of Christmas 2007.

July 16, 1945: Starts to operate the National Broadcasting Corporation. First general director of EIR served Er. Petmezas with technical director Mich. Anastasiadis. Race announcers were Constantine. Stavropoulos, archiekfonitis, and John. Veinoglou, Jason Vrontakis, Nick. Chakkas, Mich. Giannakakos, El. Sagias, Andr. Papadimitriou Kon. Mitropoulos, Georgia. Zaharopoulos, Georgia. Gerasakis, Vas. Zochos, Rep. Kousoulas, Niobe Sidiropoulou - Piniatoglou, Elpis Koukakis, Katie White, Eugenia Asimakopoulou Lalopoulou Mary, Mary Veaki Alexandra Giapapa, Effie Poulakakis (Poly), Calliope Paisius, Mirva Nikolepi - Moscow, Katerina Zachos, Alice Georgouli. Special shortwave program was created after the German-Italian occupation in 1947. Since transmitter power 7,5KW, began daily broadcasts in Cyprus, Egypt, Turkey, the Balkans, Sov. Union.

March 25, 1946: Inauguration of the Radio Station Thessaloniki portable transmitter over a car. Shortly thereafter shuts down to emit again from a fixed point in March 1947. Radio stations created in Volos (06/12/1948), Patras (7/1950). The mark E.I.R "Tsopanakis I was ..." progressively extended with the creation of several military radio stations in the province, across the country.

1948: The delegation of the power establishment of radio stations in the Armed Forces does not serve the entertainment needs of military units, but the view of the official state ideology, at a time when Greece torn apart by civil war. Nevertheless, some radio broadcasts highlighting extremely popular and are writing history for quality, creativity and inventiveness of their producers. The establishment of the first Greek Military Radio Station succeeded by Armed Forces Radio stations in Larissa (8/1948), Ioannina (1/1949), Thessaloniki (7/1949), Tripoli (8/1949), Kavala (11 / 1949) in Kozani (1/1950) and the ... Makroniso (11/1948).

The evolution of the number of radio owners in Greece:
1939 (62.000), 1940 (66.000), 1945 (36.000), 1946 (60.000), 1947 (66.000), 1948 (71.000), 1949 (135.000), 1950 (160.000), 1951 (220.000), 1953 (285,000).

On 11 May 1952 began operating the Second Programme of the then E.I.R.